Train to Run Faster As You Age

If you’re like most of us, you may be over the hill before you even realize there was a hill to go over in the first place.

The book “Running Science: Optimizing Training and Performance,” by John Brewer, indicates that muscle strength peaks around 25 years of age before plateauing and eventually declining. For an average person, VO2 max peaks in the late teens and stays level for much of the 20s, before declining. It makes sense that a 2011 study found peak performance of Olympic track athletes to be 26.

However, zoom out to longer distance events and that age gets pushed back. Marathon performance peaks around 30 or even later. For 100 milers, a 2013 study found that peak performance was 39 for women and 37 for men. It seems that the fountain of youth may be hiding on registration websites for ultramarathons.

Experience follows the science. On the Olympic track, a runner over 30 like Nick Willis is the exception that proves the rule. In ultramarathons, an athlete like 2017 US 50 Mile Champion Liza Howard, 47, is closer to the exceptional rule. Not only that, there are countless athletes into their 70s and beyond excelling at all distances.

What explains the offset, and how can we use it to our advantage when training for trail races?

According to a 1995 study, and as summarized by top coach Joe Friel, after the mid-20s, without training, muscle fibers begin to change in property and composition. Type II fibers (fast-twitch muscles used mostly for more explosive movements) become less predominant, and according to Running Science, there is a loss in protein from all muscle fibers. Around the same age, VO2 max declines by as much as 1 percent a year for untrained individuals, possibly due to decreases in max heart rate, the amount the heart pumps with each beat, and changes in the circulatory system. Even bones lose strength due to calcium loss.

Training changes everything. No matter when you start exercising, you can slow down or even reverse almost every age-related element of decline. Smart training may not be the fountain of youth, but it could be the spigot of continued development over time.

Those fast trail racers in their late 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s and beyond are likely losing a bit of their peak strength and maximal aerobic capacity like the rest of us. But instead of giving up and watching TV news all day, they use the changes to their advantage. As described by Training Peaks, athletes past their peak may be able to perform with higher relative levels of chemical byproducts associated with fatigue. As Type II FT fibers become less predominant, endurance powerhouse Type I slowtwitch fibers could pick up the slack. Plus, just because max strength peaks doesn’t mean sub-max strength decreases. Sustained aerobic development over time could improve aerobic threshold even while VO2 max stays constant or goes down.

This is all a fancy way of saying that the body is highly adaptable. There are some general rules of the aging game, guided by baseline physiology. But you can game the rules to get faster as you go.


1. Strength train

The best way to counteract muscle strength loss is to strength train like a boss. Numerous studies (like this one on cyclists and this one on runners) and anecdotal stories extol the benefit of strength training for master’s athletes, even in small, relatively short doses. While it’s immensely complicated in practice, the general summary is simple: get strong, stay strong, be strong and you could maintain or improve both max and sub-max power output. Plus, strength work can make bones, muscles, and joints more resilient. It can even reduce the amount of energy it takes to go a given pace by improving running economy.

You can start anytime, but the younger the better. Focus on dynamic movements, emphasizing body weight exercises unless you are working with an expert (some studies use maximal strength protocols involving heavier weights, but they can be risky without guidance). Almost any routine works. For our athletes over 40, we like this circuit two or three times per week:


– 10 forward lunges with both legs

– 20 rear lunges with both legs

– 10 side lunges with both legs

– 50 to 100 single-leg step ups per leg

– 10 to 20 single-leg squats per leg


– 1-minute front plank (can do variations of these with movement after you gain proficiency)

– 1-minute side planks

– 30-second rear plank

– repeat

Upper body:

– 20 to 30 push-ups (on knees works great!)

– 10 to 20 dips (supporting some weight works great; you can even use a sturdy chair with handles for this)

– 10 to 20 above-head military presses with light weights

We usually add some dynamic flexibility routines as well, like Coach Jay Johnson’s myrtle routine. There is no perfect plan, so find what works for you, focusing on good form above all else. When you are super advanced, you can add extra weight, and even use strength work graduate school exercises like deadlifts.

The key is just to do some strength and mobility work, starting as young as you can, but remembering that starting at any age is beneficial. If you have a water pot that is leaking, don’t just watch the trickle. Patch it up and pour some more in.


2. Work on speed

Chris Solinsky, one of the best track runners in American history, has been attributed with the line that he knew it was time to consider retirement when he had to do fast strides after every run to avoid slowing down. That may be apocryphal, but it’s a universal experience for runners. The top speeds that come more naturally early on take more work as you age.

But more work can mean more fun. Short strides and intervals essentially act as running-specific plyometrics, a type of strength work involving explosive movements. During a stride of 20 to 30 seconds, your power is high, your muscles fire with authority and your heart’s stroke output increases to keep up. Raise that power ceiling, and there could be more space to play in your aerobic house.

Most weeks, Liza Howard does two or three sets of flat-ground strides. Mark Tatum, a 58-year old mountain-running star, will do a similar quantity of hill strides most of the year. Nancy Thomas, a 48-year old podium finisher for her age at the US Cross Country champs, swears by “Nancy’s Hills,” 20-second uphill bursts that start at a gallop and end at a sprint. These over-35 athletes counter-intuitively focus more on speed and power than athletes in their 20s.

While there is a lot of individual variation, we usually have our athletes age 35 to 45 focus on flat strides around 20 seconds. Above 45, we transition mostly to hill strides, which involve lower impact forces and may have reduced injury risk.

As always, the magic is not in the details, but in the general principles. As we age, our speed diminishes. Eventually, speed loss will affect how fast you can go at aerobic efforts, too. Speed is like any complex skill—it needs constant practice.


3. Cross train

As the body changes with age, you’ll need training options that don’t involve the pounding of running but still allow for sustained aerobic development. While improving running economy relies on running, and the principles of specificity indicate that running is most important, general aerobic adaptations can come from any endurance activity. To avoid aerobic regression with less training volume (or in times of injury), cross training can be indispensable.

There is no perfect approach, and cross training itself can be controversial for some coaches. For our athletes, the hierarchy of cross-training activities goes:

– Stairs or stair-mill

– Bike or elliptigo

– Swimming or rowing

Over 50, we like athletes to add one to two days of cross training per week. Under 50, we like athletes to add one day a week if they have lots of time to spare, or at least to have an option to lean on when injuries pop up or we need to add some aerobic training load.


4. Strategically break down training between easy and hard

For athletes of any age, most training should be easy, usually meaning below aerobic threshold. The same goes for masters athletes. However, as an athlete ages, keeping easy truly easy is especially important, due to higher injury risk.

Plus, honest easy days let the body be maximally recovered and ready to perform on hard days. And because the body adapts to those hard, acute stresses, it’s important to keep the chronic load low enough to avoid compromising them.

Our masters athletes focus on high-quality, shorter intervals (similar to the protocol described by Coach Friel here). Tatum thrives off of 10 to 20 minutes of hill intervals broken down into 1- to 5-minute bouts separated by equal recovery to allow performance closer to max aerobic capacity. Howard does many flat intervals between 1 and 3 minutes focused on speed, with a bit more recovery between intervals than some athletes in their 20s. Then, they will use races or long runs to add more sustained work (like lactate threshold efforts), focusing the stress on one or two days a week rather than spreading it out. Sometimes, we’ll even have masters athletes do two workouts in one day to concentrate stress.

There is no magic to the specifics of training, whether an athlete is 20 or 80. But get strong, get fast and make a few small tweaks, and you may find out that you can get better no matter your age.


David Roche runs for HOKA One One and NATHAN, and works with runners of all abilities through his coaching service, Some Work, All Play.

From Traumatic Brain Injury to 100 Miles

A 400-mile bike tour from Vienna to Venice was Kristin Gablehouse’s idea of a perfect vacation with her cyclist husband. The pair had been planning and saving for the two-week trip for years, and the 37-year-old, experienced trail runner was in the best shape of her life when they left their Boulder, Colorado, home in August 2015.

The first few days of the trip went just as planned: they biked in a small group, mostly along country roads, heading south through Austria. Then on day six, nearly halfway to Venice, a dog darted out of a nearby driveway directly in the path of Gablehouse’s front tire.

“The crash happened so fast I didn’t even take my hands off the handlebars,” Gablehouse says. “It was full impact on my head. But I kept saying, ‘I’m fine, I’m fine, we have to finish.’”

But, sitting on the side of the road, she couldn’t see. She couldn’t stand. She figured she was in shock, but her companions insisted she go the hospital.

Seeing no fractures, though, doctors told her she was free to go. Dirty, sweaty and tired, Kristin decided to shower before heading to bed, hoping she’d feel better in the morning. She stepped into the shower, tilted her head back under the water and passed out. She came to almost immediately, shaken.

Gablehouse finished the bike trip from Vienna to Venice, but, still feeling off back home, had a CT scan, which came back clear. A concussion maybe, her doctor said, but nothing to be too concerned about.

“It was terrifying, though, that feeling of knowing something was very wrong,” Gablehouse says. “I slept as much as possible, but I had migraines every day and was nauseous and confused.” 

In November 2015, three months after the accident, a neurotrauma doctor diagnosed Gablehouse with a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). The difficulty with TBI, says Gablehouse, is its subtlety.

“When someone’s been in a horrific crash and has to learn to walk and talk again, people can grasp that something’s different,” she says. “But when I look totally normal, it doesn’t make sense to people that I can’t go get groceries, and I can’t drive long distances. It doesn’t make sense even to me.”

A Colorado native and the only girl between two brothers, Kristin had been a runner and cyclist for years before the European trip. She had run cross country in high school, and gotten back into running while doing a rotation as a veterinarian at Washington State University. She fell in love with the trails of Moscow Mountain just across the Idaho border, calling it her escape. Later, a friend suggested a 25K trail race. Gablehouse was immediately hooked, stepping up to a trail marathon, and then races as long as 50K and 50 miles.

Months before her accident, Gablehouse had set a goal to run the Run Rabbit Run 100-miler in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, in September 2016, but her injury had completely derailed her training. In fact, she didn’t know if she’d ever run again.

After returning home, she suffered two blood clots in her lower legs, and knew she’d need to keep moving to prevent another, but therapists told her not to raise her heart rate over 120 beats per minute.

So she walked.

At first, she could barely shuffle around the block. But after a couple of months, she added intervals of jogging: a few yards at a time gradually grew into a mile or two.

“It made me feel alive again,” she says. “It made me feel like I could keep going.”

Mapping out her training, Gablehouse realized she could still conservatively increase her mileage enough to be ready to race in September.

Related: Vietnam Veteran Rich Hooper Finds Peace on the Trails

By summer of 2016, Gablehouse had worked up to 60-mile weeks. Gradually, that increased to 80. Then, the taper began for Run Rabbit Run. Kristin never lost her resolve, but she had doubts.

“I really thought by going that far and staying up all night, my brain would just start melting,” she says.

She started the race according to the plan she’d worked out with her coach: slow and steady. For 80 miles, it worked. She ran through the night, stopping under a full moon to turn off her headlamp and gaze at the stars. It was meditative, transcendental, she says.

But in the last 20 miles, a nagging ankle injury flared up and made running nauseatingly painful. Josh, who often acts as part of her crew, came out to join her. Using him as a crutch, Kristin ran flat sections and walked the hills. They lost a lot of time, and the 36-hour cutoff loomed. When they reached the top of Mount Werner and looked down toward the finish in Steamboat Springs three miles away, they had just over half an hour to get there.

“I just stopped for a minute and thought of the whole year of recovery, and everything that we’d been through,” Gablehouse says. “And I just said, ‘OK, we’re doing this.’”

Her brother and some friends hiked up to meet them as they descended toward Steamboat. With a mile and a half to go and 35 minutes to get there, a few more friends joined them. And, with just 14 minutes to spare, she crossed the line.

“We were all crying by the time we finished,” Gablehouse says. “I just sat there, wondering, ‘How the hell did I run those last few miles?’”

Recovering over the next couple days, she wondered if the race had somehow “fixed her.” But soon, her TBI symptoms crept back.

Now, two years post-crash, Gablehouse continues to make gradual improvements, but she still can’t drive at night or for longer than 45 minutes at a time. She continues vision therapy to help with reading and with motion sensitivity, and has so far only been able to manage a few short shifts back in the veterinary clinic where she works, just outside of Boulder.

“With the brain stuff, it’s hard to see some of the improvements,” she says. “But with running, you can see those measurable changes. I’m stronger than I’ve ever been.” 

Can Alcohol Negatively Affect Your Running?

As I rolled toward the finishing chute of The Rut 28K in 2016, the time on the clock reading well over five hours, I knew I hadn’t run up to my potential.

But it wasn’t just the altitude, or the technical mountain terrain, that did me in.

“Let’s give it up for Alex,” the announcer said over the PA system. “We hear he had a late night last night.”

It was true. This wasn’t an “A” race for me, and after over a year off due to injury I was just happy to be there. Combine that with a hoard of friends I rarely saw, and I found myself at one of Big Sky’s bars past last call the night before the race – drinking beer, then more beer, then appletinis when someone bought them as a joke. Then more beer, I think.

It’s not unusual for me to be up until 2 a.m. the night before a race – but that’s usually with pre-race jitters. When my alarm went off at 5 a.m. the next morning, I was full of regret. Then water. Then ibuprofen. And the pain, it turned out, was only beginning.

Just what had I done to myself?


Alcohol and Running Performance

We’ve written about the intersection of beer and trail running before. Lots of runners have a healthy appreciation for alcohol; after all, it can be a tasty, fun way to wind down after a long day on the trails. But overconsumption can have negative health effects, which can keep you from training, performing or recovering optimally. Let’s look at how.


Long-Term Training Effect: Recovery, Hydration, and Weight

For optimal health, the Centers for Disease Control recommend moderating drinking: a limit of up to one drink per day for women and two for men. The CDC, it’s worth noting, says those are daily limits, and not intended to average out; in other words, if you abstain six nights a week and have 14 drinks on the seventh, you’ll be at higher risk for liver and cardiovascular disease, not to mention the acute risks that come with heavy consumption like accidents, memory loss and severe dehydration.

But how are athletes affected? If you are training hard and your metabolism is revving, can you consume more alcohol before it affects you negatively? How much can you drink before your training might suffer?

According to Jana Dengel, a Registered Dietician and the incoming President of the Minnesota Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the guidelines for general health are also good guidelines for optimal running. “Moderation by [the CDC’s] definition is still a good guideline overall for health, which is a good guideline for your training, both now and in the long term,” she says.

Overconsuming can cause sleep disruptions, which hamper the body’s ability to recover from big training sessions. “Even if you can fall asleep faster after a few drinks, you don’t stay asleep,” says Dengel. “Alcohol raises your body’s levels of epinephrine, which has the effect of tearing your muscles down rather than building them up.”

“And if you have a condition like sleep apnea, alcohol tends to worsen that,” she continues.

Making matters worse, drinking more than moderately can increase your risk of injury—Dengel says it increases swelling—and decreases your body’s immune function, which can contribute to delayed healing of existing injuries.

On top of that, excessive drinking isn’t going to help you maintain your racing weight. Alcohol itself is calorie-dense at seven calories per gram (compared to four in protein and carbohydrates). Plus, overconsumption is rarely accompanied by a salad; bar nachos or late-night fast-food runs can lead to weight gain or nutritional deficiencies. “This isn’t just problematic for your training right now,” Dengel says. “If you develop a fatty liver, your liver can’t detox or help with glycogen conversion like it should, which means you won’t recover as fast and you won’t perform your best in the long run.”


The Night Before: Alcohol’s Acute Effect on Performance

When I shut down the ski bar the night—and morning—before The Rut, I was saddling myself with more than just a headache and a lack of sleep. A 2001 study in Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental found that even after alcohol has technically left your system, overconsumption will leave you hypoglycemic with electrolyte imbalances and gastric distress; in other words, you’re setting yourself up for a bonk, and possibly several pit stops.

Even if you can handle the discomfort, your aerobic capacity will be reduced up to 11 percent if you’re hungover, according to a 2000 study in Sports Medicine.

Additionally, your liver will be working overtime to clear toxic by-products from your system, which means, for example, your body can’t clear lactic acid at its normal rate, leaving you more prone to fatigue and more likely to be beset by performance-hindering pain at an earlier point than your fitness should allow.

“There is still an after effect of your body playing catch-up,” says Kelly Trom, a registered dietician and triathlete based in Minneapolis. “When you have alcohol in your system, your body shuts down other processes, so your running performance won’t have the body’s full attention.”

Suffice it to say, I regretted every sip of appletini on the chin-scraping climb up Lone Peak.

Not that you’re probably fretting over minutes and seconds if you’re going on a bender the week of a race, but—we were curious—just how long should you leave before a solid night out and your race?

“Typically 72 hours is what [the CDC] would estimate,” says Dengel. “Before that, your heart rate will be elevated and there’s sort of an attack on your whole body system as you detox, so you’ll see some impact on your overall performance.”


Post-Run: Alcohol’s Effect on Recovery

Following a race—or an otherwise epic effort on the trails—is probably the most natural time for the trail runner to crave a beer. (Unless, like me after The Rut, the sight, smell or thought of one makes you sick.)

But drinking too much, too soon after a race can prolong your recovery and delay your getting back to normal training.

“You’re dehydrated to begin with after a race, and alcohol is a diuretic, which will make your dehydration worse,” Dengel says.

Alcohol can also interfere with your body’s glycogen replenishment and muscle repair in the minutes following intense effort. “Glycogen synthesis is one of those pathways that can be stalled while your system is focused on ridding itself of alcohol,” says Trom. “And if you’re drinking a beer, you might not be eating any protein during that 30- to 45-minute window that’s optimal for recovery.”

So how much is too much following a race, assuming you want to minimize your recovery time and be back to hard training and racing soon?

A 2014 study in Sports Medicine found that, with some variance for weight, tolerance, genetics and so on, a dose of less than 0.5 grams per kilogram of body weight is ideal to prevent hampering recovery. A standard “unit” of alcohol—12 ounces of 5.0-percent ABV beer, five ounces of 12-percent ABV wine, or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof liquor—contains 14 grams of alcohol, and a 140-pound runner is 63.5 kilograms; so a 140-pound runner would want to consume less than 31.75 grams of alcohol, or 2.26 ounces of 5-percent ABV beers, to keep recovery optimal following a run. Keep in mind that many of our favorite craft beers have an ABV higher than 5 percent, meaning less than two of that local IPA is optimal.


Finding Balance

But hey, we’re all human. And very few of us are pro runners who need to fret over every performance edge we can find. In my case, I cherish the memories I made in the early Montana hours before The Rut; plus, the epic sufferfest and infamous PA finish-line welcome made for a pretty great story.

We aren’t by any stretch encouraging overindulgence, but part of what makes trail running great is its participants’ frequent refusal to take the sport too seriously, as well as their herculean feats of masochism. Live your best life out there, folks. And if you choose to drink, at least know what it’s doing to you.

“I think most vices can fit in with a very healthy lifestyle, and sometimes the perfect can be the enemy of the good,” says Ian Sharman, a four-time winner of the Leadville Trail 100 and record holder in the Grand Slam of Ultrarunning. “Aiming to live in an unsustainable, so-called ‘ideal’ way is likely to lead to less happiness and mental balance.” Sharman has been open about his healthy love of alcohol, and has plenty of breweries from which to pick in his hometown of Bend, Oregon.

“For example, when I ran the Grand Slam of Ultrarunning in 2013 and had around three weeks between 100-mile races, a couple of times it really helped to let off steam and have more beers than is healthy,” he says. “The discipline and pure effort needed to perform well was psychologically exhausting, so being able to relax and take a breath by going out with friends and overindulging was probably very useful as a release valve … but not too often.”

“If you normally have a drink at night, feel free to do so the night before a race,” Dengel says. “That can relax you if it’s in moderation, and help you get out of your head game.”

“As long as you don’t need five or 10 drinks to get out of that head game,” she continues. “Then you might have a problem.”

Treadmill Climbing Can Super-Charge Your Training

The treadmill can sometimes seem like a tool of punishment straight out of Dante’s Inferno. “Abandon all hope, ye who enter here” would make a good inscription above a row of gym treadmills. But used strategically, the treadmill can be a huge benefit to your training. And it can be pretty fun, too.

For trail runners, the treadmill has a specific benefit: never-ending hills. Treadmill climbing allows you to practice a steady power output while ascending, unlike actual trail running, where output varies a bit based on terrain. Consistent, rock-less climbs could make you a more efficient climber by letting you maximize power output without having to adjust for the terrain.

Also, treadmill climbing means that your geography doesn’t have to determine your training plan. Treadmills can turn Houston into the Himalaya, allowing you to climb a K2 worth of elevation in your basement.

Finally, after climbing a treadhill, you don’t have to go downhill. While downhill running is essential for training downhill-specific leg strength it also comes with extra impact forces that may increase injury risk. On top of that, mixing up your stride dynamics using hills may decrease injury risk. Repeat the same motion and steady power output over and over, and any weak spots in your stride may be more exposed to breakdown than if you mix it up with changes in speed and gradient. Treadhills could let you do the work without having to pay the piper.

Remember that it’s important to maintain your speed and work on flat-ground running economy, so you shouldn’t just do climbing. It’s also easy to overtrain since your heart rate will be higher on uphills; if you don’t practice easy running too, the stress will mount.

But for athletes marooned on the treadmill during the winter, or wanting some extra vert during the summer, the treadmill can be an indispensible tool. Here are some guidelines.

Easy Treadhill Runs

Most of your running should be easy. Treadhills can break up your easy runs and mix up stride dynamics in a way that lets you train intelligently without going crazy. Some examples:

The Escalator: 40 minutes to 2 hours alternating between 0-, 2-, 4- and six-percent grade every four minutes, reducing speed a couple notches with each increase in grade. This is a staple easy run that mixes up movement patterns without much thought.

Miles of Smiles: 4 to 16 miles easy with every other mile at five-percent grade. This run is engaging without too much button-mashing.

Moderate Treadhill Runs

It’s okay to add a bit more spice to your training curry a few times per week. These workouts let your body get moving without too much mental anguish.

Sergeant Surge: During a 40 minute to 2 hour run, at 15 minutes and every 5 minutes after, do 1 minute at 8-percent grade moderate, with the rest easy. This is a variation of the classic surge workout and is a great option for a moderate run you do often, including your long run each week. It mixes up stride dynamics without spending much time above aerobic threshold. You can make it an easy, everyday-style run by shortening the surge to 30 seconds.

The Burn Ladder: 40 minutes to 2 hours with 5 minutes at 2-percent grade, 4 minutes at 4-percent grade, 3 minutes at 6-percent grade, 2 minutes at 8-percent grade, and 1 minute at 10-percent, including 5 minutes at 0-percent between each ladder set. Have the 0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-percent sections be easy and the 8- and 10-percent sections moderate. You’ll likely find yourself straddling aerobic threshold during the middle sets and approach lactate threshold on the 10-percent intervals. If you do races with lots of hiking, you can add two minutes at the top of each ladder, power hiking at 12 to 15-percent grade.

Hard Treadhill Runs

Major stresses should be reserved for special occasions, emphasizing full recovery afterward. These workouts are hard, but rewarding, improving comfort with difficult climbs. Only do them if you have a well-constructed base, a lot of mental conviction and a good idea of your training goal.

The Infinity Buzzsaw: 10 minutes easy at 0-percent grade, then 4 to 10 x 2 minutes at 15-percent grade, 2 minutes at 12-percent grade and 2 minutes at 8-percent grade, finishing with a cool down of 10 minutes easy at 0-percent grade. The 15-percent grade is a power hike or slow run, the 12-percent grade is a moderately hard run and the 8-percent grade is an easy run, focusing on recovering as much as you can while going uphill. This workout acts similar to a cruise interval session targeting lactate threshold. Our athletes often use a variation prior to major ultras, like UTMB or Western States (very advanced athletes will even use it as a second workout on key days)

It Burns So Good: 15 minutes easy at 1-percent grade, 4 to 10 x 3 minutes moderate/hard at 8-percent grade with equal recovery at 0-percent grade, 15 minutes easy at 1-percent grade. These intervals have more recovery, targeting an effort slightly harder than lactate threshold. They are good for maintaining strong form while putting out lots of power.

The only limits to your treadhill adventures are those from your imagination. Practice good form and be sure to start warm and watch for calf, achilles or plantar irritation from the climbing. Staying healthy and happy matters most of all, so adjust your plan using these general principles (rather than focusing on the specifics) to super-charge your treadmill time.


David Roche runs for HOKA One One and NATHAN, and works with runners of all abilities through his coaching service, Some Work, All Play.

4 Reasons to Keep a Running Log

Adding up miles, meters, hills and splits has long been an obsession of track and road athletes. It may seem a tad obsessive, but keeping track of your mileage and workouts can help you edge closer to your training and racing goals. You’ll be able to chart your improvement, hone in on what works and what doesn’t and hold yourself accountable for the goals you set; you’ll be able to keep track of how your body is feeling over time and identify the need for an extra rest day; and come race day, you’ll get a boost of confidence from looking back at the work you’ve put in.

Whether you’re trying to jump to a new distance, shave seconds (or minutes!) off your PR or just find the root of that nagging hip pain, logging your miles and workouts can help you get the most out of your training.

 Track your progress over time.

 Just pushed through your longest long run ever? Finally tagged the summit of that peak you’ve been eyeing? Finished an interval workout you thought would never end? Write it down. Make notes about what worked, what didn’t and how you felt. Not only will you be able to keep track of your mileage; you’ll be able look back later and compare your energy, mood and overall performance the next time you attempt something similar.

Matt Daniels, two-time member of the U.S. Mountain Running team and runner up at the 2016 USATF 30K Trail Championships, has logged every mile he’s run since the age of 11.

“I can always go back and look at previous years or workouts and compare how I was feeling at particular points in training,” Daniels says. The 29-year-old Texas native was an All-American track athlete for Adams State with a 4:02 mile and sub-15 5K to his name. Continuing to keep a log was integral during his transition from track to trail, allowing him to establish new baselines and track the effectiveness of new training strategies.

“I can track what trails I run on, the weather, elevation gain,” he says. “Re-reading [my log] every now and then forces me to remember that it’s not just a sport, but also a journey.”

Find the reason for your aches and pains

 With the excitement of a new racing season just around the corner, we can be tempted to jump in and immediately log as many miles as possible. But abrupt increases or changes in volume or intensity can lead to unexpected injuries. Every body responds differently to training adjustments. Having your workouts logged means less time trying to remember what day you noticed that niggle in your knee, and more time recovering.

Over time, you’ll start to see patterns. Maybe you’re always sore three days after a downhill run; maybe speed intervals tend to flare up a particular nagging injury. If you can look back over your training, you’ll be able to pinpoint just what types of training cause your body angst.

Ultrarunner and coach Jason Koop carefully monitors his athletes’ training logs as part of a continuous feedback loop. He says it keeps athletes accountable to their training and their own bodies. They’ll be more tuned in mid workout, knowing they’ll have to report back later.

“It helps the coach see how the athlete is adapting, as well as the context behind each of the workouts or phases,” says Koop. “Having that feedback loop is really the difference between having a coach and having a training plan.”

Avoid over- or under-training

 Whether you train with a coach, a group or on your own, keeping careful track of your runs is one of the best ways to maintain consistency. Adding up your weekly totals keeps you honest and helps you gauge if your mileage jumps are happening too quickly (or not quickly enough). Speedgoat 50K champ Anna Mae Flynn kept a log on the online trail-mapping tool Strava to monitor both her training cycles and her slow build in mileage as she shifted from half marathons to 50Ks and longer ultras. She credits it for helping her avoid overtraining.

“Training [to be] a mountain athlete is tough,” says Flynn. “Training properly takes a lot of time and self-control.”

This is especially key for runners new to trails or to ultra distances, she says. As you start to keep a log, make notes of how your body feels on particular days.

“It takes a long time to build a base, so maintaining a routine is key,” Flynn says. “I write notes for myself, for example, ‘Wednesday: heavy legs, but energy felt good; Thursday: recovery day, not worried about speed.’ Spend some time feeling your body out.” 

Gain an extra confidence boost come race day

The initial rush of registering for a race is great, but sometime between tapering and getting to the start line, doubt can creep in. If you’ve kept a log, you’ll be able to look back on all the work you put in over the preceding months. Seeing the endless long runs and countless miles will help calm pre-race nerves and remind you that the hard part is already done.

“My handwritten notes remind me of how things were when I was feeling great and racing well, or can give me hints as to why I feel run down or race poorly,” says Daniels. It’s a reminder of the hours spent on road and trail preparing for what he loves. “But it’s more than just logging miles and keeping tabs on training,” he says. “It’s my life story.”

How Magdalena Boulet Summited the World’s Highest Volcano

On December 20, 2017, champion ultrarunner Magdalena Boulet and mountaineer Roxanne Vogel reached the 22,615-foot summit of Ojos del Salado, the world’s highest active volcano, located on the northern end of the Chile-Argentina border.

Vogel had summited above 20,000 feet several times, but Boulet—the 2015 Western States 100 champion and UltraRunner of the Year—had never been at an elevation above 18,000 feet.

“I remember feeling this relief of getting to the top, but only for a split second,” she says. “Then it hit me: ‘Wow, this is only half way, I still have to come off this mountain.’” Boulet, 44, spoke while drinking tea in the kitchen of her cottage-style home in Oakland, California, where she lives with her husband Richie and 12-year-old son Owen.

Boulet and Vogel’s expedition was part science experiment and part adventure, commissioned by Berkeley-based GU Energy Labs, where Boulet works as vice president of Innovation, Research and Development and Vogel works as a sports nutritionist.

Their goal: reach the top of the volcano in half the time of a typical expedition. Climbers normally take 10 or more days, camping below the peak prior to summiting, to acclimate. Boulet and Vogel wanted to summit in five.

Boulet and Horner approach the summit. Photo courtesy Magdalena Boulet

Could sea-level athletes safely be ready to summit with far fewer days at a base camp? By documenting and testing all aspects of their preparation and expedition, Boulet and Vogel hope to develop a training and nutrition protocol to help other athletes embarking on extreme high-altitude challenges.

The duo’s plan combined six weeks of rigorous training with high-altitude simulation at their homes and workplace in the Bay Area, through the use of Hypoxico Altitude Training Systems tents and chambers, which simulate oxygen-depleted high elevation. They slept in a Hypoxico tent every night and spent time working in a hypoxic chamber set up in the Gu office during the day. The team also used the opportunity to test nutritional products under development at GU.

Boulet and Vogel often had twice-daily workouts, which included a great deal of uphill work—step-ups, stair repeats and hiking on a high-incline treadmill—with a weighted vest. They also performed plyometrics, upper-body conditioning and slow running or hiking with a heavy pack. Some of their exercising took place in the hypoxic chamber.

Ultimtately, Boulet and Vogel, along with guide and expert climber Blaine Horner, met their goal of summiting in the time frame they set. But Boulet says it marked the most difficult and humbling experience of her athletic career.

Trail Runner sat down with her to discuss the expedition and how her plans for competing in 2018 are taking shape.


On Day 5 of the trip, you were at a base camp around 17,000 feet and had to go up about 5,600 feet, over approximately six miles, to reach the summit. What was the most challenging part of that ascent?

I made a rookie mistake of not breaking in my mountaineering boots. Mountaineering is definitely a new adventure for me, so I’m not as familiar with—and not as in love with—the amount of equipment that’s necessary.

I’d been hiking and doing great in my Hoka waterproof hiking boots, and I was trying to convince the others at camp that I should use them. At the last minute they told me that if I want to keep my toes, I should use the mountaineering boots, which I still kind of disagree with.

I used my Hoka boots all the way until 19,000 feet, and I carried my mountaineering boots in my pack. At a refugio, I made the switch. We had a really good pace up to that point, but [after I switched boots] I started moving slower than my two teammates, who were experienced mountaineers. I was wasting a lot of energy, slipping more. I started focusing all my energy on just walking properly. The higher we went, the slower the pace became. In addition to my pace slowing down, everything around me started to slow down. I could hear conversations around me at a slow pace.

Did you draw on past experiences at ultras to help you cope?

Absolutely. There were so many parallels to things not going perfect on race day, and being able to react in the right way.

I started to doubt whether I could do this, and there were times when my teammates were probably questioning whether I should continue. We would stop and check on each other, and they’d ask me questions. My answer every time was, “I want to keep going.” But if I were alone on that mountain, I would have turned around.

I had to dig into my bag of tools to turn doubt around, and [focused on] moving one foot in front of the other, and trying to relax a bit. Our original plan was to take 12 to 14 hours round trip [to get to the summit and back to base camp, about 12 miles]. But by the time we reached 20,000 feet, we were already a couple of hours behind. We reached the summit in 12 hours, so we were about four hours behind schedule.

Boulet tests her VO2 Max prior to setting out for Chile. Photo courtesy Magdalena Boulet.

Aside from breaking in your boots, is there anything else you would have done differently?

Yes, another mistake I would have corrected is access to food. As an ultrarunner, I practice with a hydration vest, so I have access to food and hydration at any given time. I also practice eating and drinking frequently. On the mountain, carrying so much equipment and gear, my fuel was in a backpack. The protocol was that we’d hike for an hour, then we’d stop to eat and drink. Then we’d continue. Moving for an hour, then stopping to fuel, didn’t work well for me. I should have had a hydration vest or something to provide easy access to fuel, so I could’ve taken it while I was moving; or, I should have practiced eating and drinking on the hour in training. My backpack didn’t even have side pockets; it was all enclosed, and the idea of stopping to take off all of that gear was really overwhelming. I could tell I needed more fuel, but the higher we got, the more my appetite was suppressed.

The final stretch to the summit features massive boulders and technical climbing. How was the transition from hiking to climbing?

Mentally, I was unprepared for that part. I knew from reading about the route that there would be ropes involved, but in my head I was thinking about the [fixed] Half Dome ropes – “I’ll just hang onto some ropes!” But this was full-on climbing, and we had to get roped in. Luckily, I was with an experienced team. According to them, I did really well. But with the level of tension and fear I felt, I wouldn’t say I did that well. In in my head I was thinking, “Wow, we still need to come back down this rocky part.”

What was the summit moment like?

I felt my cognitive response was slower, and I was under-fueled. I ate, but things were not going down easily. It was windy and about negative 10 to 12 Celsius (14 to 10 degrees Farenheit). But we got lucky. The day before, it snowed on a French team that summited; they had no views.

I keep saying to everyone, “I went to Mars and back.” It is the most remote part of the world. I didn’t really believe until I saw it. There’s just nothing for miles and miles [except for] 20,000-foot-plus peaks.

How did you handle getting down?

I definitely moved slowly and not in a straight line. That’s when it was evident to me that I didn’t have control of my lower body or legs. If it were not for gravity, I’m not sure I would have been moving. I’d gain some momentum, and anytime there was a turn, my legs would collapse and I’d fall to the ground. Roxanne was in front of me, and I’d brake on her to go in the right direction. That happened until about 19,000 feet, where we went into the refugio and I switched my shoes. Once I did that, I was cruising. But I could tell there was nothing left in my legs.

What advice do you have for other athletes facing high-altitude challenges?

Know the toll that exercise is going to have on your body, and make sure you provide yourself [enough fuel]. Make your food choices as efficient as possible, and have easy access to them, because of how strenuous simple tasks become at high altitude. Also, be aware of how much you’re eating or not eating.

What advice can you offer for handling travel fatigue before a big ascent like this?

You have to go in with the right attitude. I was prepared that this was going to be intense travel. You’ve got to have the right playlist and the right snacks; make sure you have snacks in case there’s no access to good food along the way. Make sure everyone on your team is on the same page, because if you have one person complaining, it brings the energy down.

In hindsight, do you think your training was effective?

Our training protocol definitely worked. Initial body-composition and bone-density tests showed muscular imbalance for both of us. [After] our six-week training block, which was pretty strenuous, the results showed that we had exchanged five pounds of fat with five pounds of muscle and increased our bone density without changing body weight.

You’re a fast runner. What did you like—or not like—about this strenuous, slow high-altitude hiking?

I loved it. I absolutely loved the challenge and the problem solving. It’s not that different from setting out to do a 100-mile race. It took me 18 hours, almost as long as doing Western States. I definitely see this as an ultra-endurance event, despite moving so slowly.

What are your racing plans for 2018?

I would like to go back to UTMB. I’ve decided not to do Western States, and I am struggling with giving it up. I wanted to pick one or the other, because I don’t think doing both is conducive to a great performance. I’ve looked at Marathon des Sables, Mt. Fuji, and at a new race by UTMB in a very remote part of China on the border with the Himalayan mountains; but, they’re all coming up really quickly, and I still have not committed to any of them. I might do the Mont Blanc Marathon  as a preparation for UTMB.

What did you learn about yourself through this summit experience?

I was brought down to my knees. I didn’t think I’d ever have such a humbling experience in any athletic endeavor. I’m just tapping into this sport of mountaineering. I absorbed a lot in a short period of time, but a lot I need to practice. You can’t replace experience.


This interview was edited for length. To see more of Boulet’s photos from her expedition, and to read her descriptions of each day of the journey, see her Instagram posts @RunBoulet.

Sarah Lavender Smith is a contributing editor for Trail Runner and author of The Trail Runner’s Companion: A Step-by-Step Guide to Trail Running and Racing, from 5Ks to Ultras.

We Are Hiring!

We are seeking a qualified Assistant Editor with strong journalism and writing skills and a broad knowledge of (and passion for) trail running. Applicants should also possess a thorough understanding of the outdoor community and marketplace. The position requires location in the town of Carbondale, located on Colorado’s Western Slope.

Job responsibilities include assisting the editor in editorial and marketing planning; writing and editing both print and online articles; soliciting photography; organizing and writing shoe, gear and apparel reviews; executing weekly e-newsletters; attending summer and winter Outdoor Retailer tradeshows; and developing and executing social-media strategies.

Please send a letter of interest, resume and writing samples to [email protected]


• 2-4 years related experience, as per below.

• Strong knowledge of and passion for trail running, including races/racing, gear trends, key players, current events/issues, popular destinations, and training, injury and nutrition principles

• Excellent writing and editing skills, including writing strong headlines

• Ability to work under short deadlines, for both writing and photo sourcing

• Experience successfully integrating website with social-media platforms

• Knowledge of current online trends and the types of content that generate high traffic

• Ability to recruit and develop positive working relationships with writers, photographers, brands and athletes.

• WordPress content-management experience

• Basic HTML knowledge

• Experience with SEO and using Google Analytics to track and optimize web traffic

• Strong communication skills



• Developing print and online editorial content with direction of editorial staff

• Managing and writing Spring and Fall Shoe Reviews, and other categorical reviews throughout the year

• Writing and posting daily website content, including sourcing photography

• Covering trail-running news in a timely manner, via writing and assigning out stories to trusted freelancers

• Managing social media, including posting regular web content to Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and other social-media outlets

• Growing social-media presence to support web and print properties

• Acquiring, editing and writing content for the weekly Inside Dirt and Trail Tips e-newsletters

• Uploading archive print content to website

• Representing Trail Runner at various events, including Outdoor Retailer

• Expanding brand awareness through digital platforms by engaging with new readers in creative ways.


Pro Tips for Your 2018 Training

We’ve all set goals for the year, be they new distances, PRs or big peaks. Now comes the hard part: putting in the miles, logging workouts and setting yourself up for success, both this season and for years of running to come.

Our 2018 wall calendar features 12 training and running tips from 12 athletes.

Joseph Gray
2016 World Mountain Running Champion

“To help boost stride efficiency, uphill power and your ability to handle pounding downhill, do some adaptation training for the feet. I use the Trail or Vapor Glove (zero drop, minimal cushion) for light running within each training cycle to build up muscles in my feet and improve toe-off power.”

Brought to you by Merrell

Max King
3rd place, 2017 Marathon du Mont Blanc

“Throughout my career, others have pushed me and inspired me to make myself a better runner. As I get older, I like to push the limits of what I’m capable of and show others that they are capable of more than they thought possible, too.

But, as you continue to push yourself, remember you only push past your limits by understanding your body and learning the importance of rest and recovery.”

Brought to you by Salomon

Brett Stublet
Owner, Durango Running Store

“Trail running can offer you whatever experience you are looking for: a chance for quiet solitude or the energy and camaraderie of a group run. Most communities have running clubs and group runs that can be at on of fun.”

Brought to you by Tailwind

Joe Grant
2nd, 2017 Hardrock 100

“Keep running simple. Too often, we over-complicate running with excessive metrics, data and expectations that distract from the basic act of just moving on foot.

By shifting our perspective, we can approach running in a more relaxed state of mind. That mental ease translates to better physical performances, but also greatly enhances the overall running experience.”

Brought to you by Black Diamond

Mirna Valerio
High-school teacher and running ambassador

“Every trail run is an opportunity to engage our basic of instincts, surviving and flourishing in nature.”

Brought to you by Merrell


Cat Bradley
2017 Western States champion

“Don’t put too much stock in training. Sure, there is a time and place to put in the work and take your running just a little bit seriously. But if you ever start resenting your running shoes, and the time outside no longer contributes to your happiness, throw out your training plan and rebuild your relationship with the sport.

Run when you want and what you want (or not at all), until you feel excited about training again.”

Brought to you by Salomon

Tim Freriks
1st place, 2017 The North Face Endurance Challenge 50-Mile Championships

“The long run is a staple. Challenge yourself by running longer than what is comfortable. You must find “comfort in the chaos,” and nothing mimics this more than the long run.

If I can battle through a hot, dry day in the Grand Canyon with 5,000 to 9,000 feet of climbing, I know that I will have the tools to keep pushing on race day.”

Brought to you by Drymax

Courtney Dauwalter
1st place, 2017 Moab 240

“I am intrigued and inspired by what our bodies, brains and determination can accomplish. Wondering what else is possible keeps me heading out the door every day to push my own limits.

Keep moving forward. The low spots will pass if  you give them time, and that time may as well be spent covering some miles. We are capable of more than we give ourselves credit for.”

Brought to you by Salomon

Chris Harrington
Running ambassador

There’s no magic pill, food, training tip or shortcut to get you where you want to be. Learn to love the everyday grind, be patient with results and don’t be afraid to take on challenges that make you uncomfortable. Whether it’s everyday life or training, that’s where growth always happens.

Brought to you by Merrell

Kaci Lickteig
2016 Western States 100 champ

Be flexible. Your running schedule should not rule you. As long as you get the key runs in, don’t fret if ti isn’t on the scheduled day. Make sure you account for life and stress.

Brought to you by Honey Stinger

Brian Tinder
2nd place, 2015 Transrockies Stage Run

Trail running is my church. It’s the only time I can pray and meditate without life’s distractions. I confess I’m no saint but nature never seems to care.

Brought to you by Adidas


David Roche
1st place, 2016 Way Too Cool 50K (and Trail Runner contributing editor)

“Take easy running seriously. It’s hard not to get caught up in running faster and faster, just because you can. But consistent easy running is the key to unlocking your potential, because it lets you stay healthy and run longer.

Eventually, by running easy a lot and faster a little, you may even find your ‘easy’ pace becomes faster than you thought possible.”