One Dirty Magazine

When (and Why) to Train Below Aerobic Threshold

Stave off burnout and injury by running slowly more often.

David Roche October 24th, 2017

When (and Why) to Train Below Aerobic Threshold Photo by David Roche.

Run too fast some of the time, and you’ll probably get slower all the time.

That is the running-training paradox— a paradox that has led to the downfall of countless motivated trail runners through injury, burnout and reduced aerobic efficiency.

How It Unfolds

The story plays out so often that it’s like a horror movie running on a loop on a dysfunctional DVD player. A trail runner has success through consistent, moderately hard running. That trail runner thinks that his/her success comes from the moderately hard part, rather than the consistency. At that point, coaches and experienced runners usually start screaming “Don’t run too hard!” and “Slow down!” just like a horror-movie watcher will scream “Don’t go into that abandoned chainsaw warehouse!” But the trail runner keeps on pushing, venturing into the foreboding warehouse, oblivious to the chainsaws around the corner.

Often, that training horror movie does not have a happy ending. In the best cases, the trail runner starts stagnating. In the worst cases, the trail runner starts getting stress injuries or experiencing symptoms of overtraining syndrome.

Many times when professional runners reach out for coaching, they are at the inflection point, starting to feel run down and injury-prone from running a bit too hard, too often. But it’s not just pros. Most trail runners seem to struggle with the running training paradox, especially early on in the running journey.


Aerobic Threshold Defined

The most important physiological variable to understand to avoid being the star of your own training horror story is aerobic threshold. Aerobic threshold is the intensity range at which the body switches from primarily relying on fat oxidation for fuel to primarily relying on carbohydrates. Below aerobic threshold, the body has enough oxygen to function without producing significant amounts of lactate and other associated byproducts that build up with harder exercise. Above aerobic threshold, breathing rate increases and lactate levels begin to build up, plus there may be a bit more muscle damage. That is: above-aerobic-threshold training takes longer to recover from.

At even harder efforts, your body produces more lactate than it can use and waste products accumulate without being cleared. That tipping point is called Lactate Threshold.

For training purposes, it’s not helpful to think of aerobic threshold as a specific point. Instead, think of it as a range of intensities that vary slightly over time, depending on age, psychological stress, weather and many other variables. Bottom line: it’s when you transition from easy to moderate exertion, to a slightly harder effort with deeper breathing and a less-sustainable pace.


How to Figure Out Your Aerobic Threshold

The best way to calculate aerobic threshold is with a metabolic test in a lab. But there are a few other ways to approximate it. Coach Joe Friel estimates that aerobic threshold occurs at a heart rate of around 20 beats per minute below lactate threshold heart rate, which can be estimated easily (in my coaching experience, aerobic threshold is usually around 85 percent of LTHR, or 25 to 35 beats away, with the exception of very highly trained athletes or those 50+ years old, as discussed by Coach Gordo Byrn).

Dr. Phil Maffetone developed the famous (or infamous, depending on your perspective) maximum aerobic function (MAF) formula, which ballparks “MAF” heart rate at 180 minus your age. This often gets close to aerobic threshold. The exact heart-rate number is less important; what’s important is figuring out what truly constitutes an easy or hard effort for your physiology and background. Aerobic threshold should be a five or six perceived exertion on a scale of 1 to 10, or a mostly conversational effort you could hold for an extended period of time.


Why Aerobic Threshold Matters

Training too much above aerobic threshold can be a ticking time bomb for health and long-term aerobic development. First, the increased stress of training above aerobic threshold often causes an increase in the stress hormone cortisol; second, it can cause higher levels of muscle breakdown and forces your body to absorb more impact forces.

If your stress levels—physical or psychological—are higher than they should be on easy days, the body won’t be able to recover from hard days. If stress keeps piling up without adequate recovery, the body often breaks down through fatigue and injury.

Even if break-down doesn’t happen, too much running above aerobic threshold can actually cause you to get slower. High-volume aerobic training leads to increased aerobic enzyme activity; it also spurs your body to grow more capillaries to transport oxygen and fuel to working muscles, and more mitochondria, the cellular power centers that convert oxygen and nutrients to energy.

Train too hard too often, and you’re neglecting the aerobic base necessary for reaching your performance potential at all distances, including shorter trail races. To run fast when it counts, you need to get comfortable running slowly.

There’s an added peril for trail runners: uphills. Most runners find it difficult to stay below aerobic threshold on climbs. As a result, runners who spend lots of time on steep or mountainous terrain might break down sooner than someone training without big climbs, if they aren’t careful to take some days easier.

Think of training like a big salad, with time below aerobic threshold being the greens, time closer to lactate threshold being the dressing and time above lactate threshold and VO2 max being the bacon. A salad with just greens isn’t going to get a five-star yelp review; likewise, a cup of dressing and bacon might taste okay, but it’s not a well-balanced meal.


3 Tips for Putting Your Aerobic Threshold to Work

1. Get an understanding of what your aerobic threshold feels like.

You can approximate your aerobic threshold using a heart-rate monitor or perceived exertion. The MAF test works for many runners, though it can be off for physiologies that vary from average. I often coach the athletes I work with to do a Friel Lactate Threshold Heart Rate test—a 30-minute time trial, averaging your heart rate over the final 20 minutes to get LTHR. Multiply that number by 85 percent to roughly approximate an effort cap for easy runs (though adjusting to a different percentage if you feel like that’s a bit too hard or too easy).

You can also use perceived exertion to determine what your “easy” should be. Remember, “easy” does not mean the fastest pace you can go while finishing your run intact; it means truly relaxed and comfortable, talking mostly in complete sentences, with no urge to stop.

The goal isn’t to run at your aerobic threshold all the time, but to use it as a general guideline to prevent you from going too hard. It’s okay (and recommended) to do easy runs well below that number; it’s also OK to go above that number sometimes. But you shouldn’t spend lots of time above aerobic threshold without a training goal in mind.


2. Hold yourself accountable to aerobic threshold for most of your running.

Most of your training should be below aerobic threshold. A typical week for an athlete I coach is:

Monday: rest
Tuesday: Run below aerobic threshold (often with short, fast strides)
Wednesday: Interval workout (with warm-up and cool-down below aerobic threshold)
Thursday: Run below aerobic threshold (sometimes with faster finishes)
Friday: rest or run below aerobic threshold
Saturday: Long run or workout with time spent above aerobic threshold
Sunday: Run below aerobic threshold (often with short, harder strides or faster finishes)

The two days in bold are the days to play with truly hard efforts. All the other days are below aerobic threshold, with variation depending on the athlete. This approach lets you build aerobic volume while minimizing injury risk.


3. Listen to your body.

The body sends stress signals in a lot of different ways, from persistent fatigue, injury or insomnia to abnormal changes in sexual function. If you notice yourself feeling a bit worn down, consider spending more time below aerobic threshold to allow your body to recover.


David Roche runs for HOKA One One and NATHAN, and works with runners of all abilities through his coaching service, Some Work, All Play.


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2 years ago

Hi David! Thanks for the information. When you are saying to run below aerobic threshold, do you mean to run in zone 2 (85% to 89% of LTHR if we use Joe Friel terminology). Because zone 1 (less than 85% of LTHR), from my comprehension, is a «recovery periods used for example in an interval workout». What I understand is that our easy run should be in zone 1 and 2, but I’m not sure if you are saying or no that it should only be in zone 1. Thanks!

David Roche
David Roche
2 years ago

Great question Pascal! When we say 85% of LTHR, we are just trying to set a guideline as a starting point, rather than a hard-and-fast rule related to Friel zones. So for Megan, 85% of LTHR is way too fast–she’d be running 6:20 pace constantly and likely get injured. For another athlete, 85% of LTHR might be 12-minute pace and be too slow to really let them use good running form. So for Megan, we’ll stay in Friel zone 1 always on easy running. For the other athlete, they might constantly be in zone 2 at first. Basically, if you use HR, think of it as an individualized guideline that develops as your fitness develops. You rock!

Allan Holtz
Allan Holtz
2 years ago

This article mentions heavy hard breathing as indicative of exceeding aerobic threshold. I wish to point out the heart rate at which this happens is a huge function of distance run. In the long run, e.g. 100 mile trail races, a pace that is very comfortable with slow easy breathing the first 20 miles can easily transition to very hard rapid breathing by 70 miles, depending on your fitness level, weight, age and especially your calorie consumption during the race up to that point. You may find your pace dropping a lot AND your heart rate increasing due to your body transitioning to fat burning due to lack of sufficient glycogen. Except for the relatively untrained, this does not happen in runs under 10 miles, unless one is low on glycogen due to inadequate rest from previous hard efforts.

2 years ago

Allan, Do you have any tips on becoming more efficient when transitioning from Sugar to Fat. On my long runs this is exactly what happens to me. I start out with a 135 HR. After about 90 minutes of running the same pace, my HR begins to drift. Within another 60 minutes i’m running the same pace but my HR is in the low 160’s. Would love to be able to maintain that 135-140 b/c I feel like I can run forever in that range.

David Roche
David Roche
2 years ago

Fantastic points Allan! The calculus starts to change on ultra efforts, and that’s an essential point for people to think about. Thank you!

2 years ago

Good article, I think it’s always refreshing to read about a structured plan rather than the old “Go Hard or Go Home” mentality.
I believe it would have been nice to also mention the 80/20 rule

David Roche
David Roche
2 years ago

Thanks so much for comment Frederic! Great point!

Girl Runner
Girl Runner
2 years ago

I have greatly increased my running this year, and have suffered many of the symptoms described in the final paragraph. My doctor did blood work, and said it was due to a testosterone diffeciency. (I am female and instead of levels in the normal 80-200 range, mine were at 3). Could overtraining cause that, or are they likely unrelated?

Christopher Henson
Christopher Henson
2 years ago

When I was a road runner, I mistakenly thought that every run had to be faster than the last one. That was the sign I was improving. And then I got so into running that I started running twice a day. Then next day I’d wake up with a bit of calf tightness and still go out and run fast and then ‘plink’ I’d feel a micro-tear in my calf muscle. Ouch! Now I run trails and I run with an HR at or below 125 (180-age=HR). Which a year ago made for really slow, slow times… in the 19’/mile area. But a year later, no injuries, SAME HR and my times are in the 15’s. Soon I hope to be in the 13’s. Again, still w/ the same HR. I don’t use gels, sports drinks, or any fake, sugary supplements. Just green kale/apple, etc. shakes…and vegan everything else. It really is, “you have to run slow, to run fast!” And “Slow,” means, less injuries, which means more time on the trails! Best. Chris

Tripp Knightly
Tripp Knightly
2 years ago

Would have helped if this article acknowledged more that HRs are still going to drift for most people on a trail run. Need to think about bursts of HR vs longer elevations. Unless you want to be a MAF slave, which kind of takes the joy out of it, and to what end I’m skeptical. I’ve definitely bonked later in a run that I went aerobic for too long earlier, but bursts to get through a short climb or fly down a hill seem less an an issue.

1 year ago

haw can i apply it with kids between 10-12 years
i,m couch and its first time with me

5 months ago

I have been threshold training for the past 20 years. Your article should be required reading for everyone the first day they join a gym! The one thing I have seen more than anything is the lack of understanding about fuel sources and stress hormones like cortisol. People work out hard to relive stress. But they work out too hard to often. Without the proper Understanding of rest and recovery most people over train (workout). When your young you don’t notice the effects. But believe me,it’s true. there’s enough stress in everyday life. working out like a Maniac to often doubles up on the stress your body has to cope with. Over time, the stress we put on our adrenal glands thru needs to be understood. Great article

Nick Weaver
Nick Weaver
4 months ago

I understand the importance and willing to check my ego at the door. However, as an amateur I’m clocking, with only two medium runs a week, a 1:35 13.1K. But, with this limited training schedule, when trying to run only in aerobic my HRM won’t allow me to run at all. To balance my HR at about 145 I can only shuffle my feet, light jog, and even walk for periods of time. Ultimately, taking about 40 minutes to complete a 5K. Is this typical for someone who only goes all out and is use to pushing their lactate threshold by one hard session at a time? When will I see enough improvement to at minimum jog the entire run? Am I doing this incorrectly?

1 month ago

Hello Nick.
I can only answer from my own experience. I used to train in the medium-hard effort and interval training most of the time.
Then I switched to only below-aerobic threshold about 10 weeks ago.

Since then my pace has reduced from a shuffle-walk-shuffle at MAF HR (frustrating !!) (124bpm for me) to a steady easy run that is a min and a half raster per mile (11:30 dpwn to 10:00 min/mile @ the same 124 bpm in 10 weeks). My goal is to get to the 9:30 ish min/mile @ 124 bpm in the nest 3 months.

I guess the name of the game is patience. It’ll take months to get faster at MAF pace but you WILL get there. Probably 3-6 months would be a reasonable time to expect measurable results.

I hope this helps.



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